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Without ideals even prac- tical America is unthinkable." The Declaration of Independence of the Cechoslovak Nation pledges itself to uphold the ideals of modern democracy "as they have been the ideals of the Cechs for cen- turies." From Hus to Havlicek the Cech has waged a ceaseless, though at times a losing war against the sinister powers of reaction. Stern necessity has taught the Cech commoner to rely on INTRODUCTORY none save himself, to think and act for himself. Of all the races from the old Dual Empire, Germans and Magyars not excepted, the Cech was the lowest in the percentage of illit- erates — one and one half per cent — and the highest in the percentage of skilled labor. The state maintained in New York City a salaried official, so called Immigration Commis- sioner, whose duty it was to seek to divert the flow of newcomers thither. Reli- gious freedom is absolute and there is not the slight- est connection between church and state. In Wisconsin no religious qualification is necessary for * Albert B. The Germans called Milwaukee the German Athens, the Cechs baptized Racine, where stood the cradle of the Slowan Amerikdnsky and later Slavie, the Cech Bethlehem. Synchronously with him ar- rived in Milwaukee Hans Balatka of Moravia. Admittedly, the first stopping point of our countrymen was Milwaukee, where now live between two and three hundred families; by far the largest numbers are found in the city and county of Manitowoc. K.: "The Cradle of Bohemian National Life in Milwaukee," The Kvety Americke, December 22, 1886. Unfortunately, beauty was the only asset of these trees. Stumps were left in the ground until they rotted or were burned; in the patches, which by the way, widened year by year, the farmer planted his potatoes and his corn. Louis to the title of Cech metropolis was irretrievably lost. 1854-1904, published on the occasion of the Thir- teenth Convention of the CS. On market days, the women went to market to buy groceries and to the abattoirs for cheap meats (haslet, tripe, kidneys, brains, etc.). John Reymershoffer, a son of the pioneer, acted as Austrian Consul. The largest party of Bohemian home- seekers came September i, 1876, from Chicago. The locust pest, which ruined crops in Saline County, was the direct cause of many Nebraskans emigrating to Kansas.^ Settlements in North and South Dakota were founded, not by professional farmers arriving direct from Bohemia, as was the case with the farming settlements in Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Iowa, but by proletarians from large cities, such as Chicago. The following collaborated on the list: Alabama, Anton Svoboda, farmer, Silverhill. Wertheimer, Bondy, Lederer, Krebs - not one Cech among them. 73 THE CECHS IN AMERICA In the first generation the leading occupation is that of farmer; in the second generation that of agricultural laborer.

Driven from their native land in the first half of the seventeenth century, Cech Protestant exiles are known to have settled in New Amsterdam, the present New York, and among the English in Virginia. The Missouri Republican of July 20, 1849, advertises the trip from St. It was claimed that immi- grants were treated brutally by agents and run- ners, particularly those who were unable to speak English. Borecky^ mentions by name about ten families who lived there in the mid-fifties. 5-40, in The Directory of Bo- hemian Merchants, Tradesmen and Societies. — Frank 44 o S X g o H U u i S NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION Minnesota boasted, in 1850, of 6077 white in- habitants. 29-68, in Directory and Almanac of the tech Population of Chicago. John Rynda: Guide to the Cech Catholic Congregations in the Archdiocese of St. Each family provided itself for the long trek with an ox-team and a prairie schooner, in which were piled featherbeds, kitchen utensils, clothing, provisions. Schlesinger had been a deputy to the Bohemian Diet. Both, when danger threatened, found succor under Herman's hospitable roof. Of the 2266 Bohemian male immigrants reported in this occu- pation, 1738, or more than three fourths, were in the State of New York, constituting more than one fourth (26.1 per cent) of the total number of Bo- hemian immigrant breadwinners in that State. In the sixties a few of the Sedlec cigarmakers emigrated to New York."Our nation," comments Charles Veleminsky, a ix INTRODUCTORY pedagogue who traveled in the United States, "has ever been idealistic, sacrificing all for its ideals. The native Cech nobility practically disappeared in the seventeenth century. Taxes were low; one could become a citizen within one year. 37 THE CECHS IN AMERICA office or to constitute a voter; all that is required is for the man to be 21 years old and to have lived in the state one year." ^ Wisconsin, for a long time, stood at the front of Cech effort in the United States. (e) "Bohemian Farmers in Wisconsin," Charities, New York, December 3, 1904. A lifelong friend of Jon65 and his schoolmate from Prague, Ma§ek, gave up journalism (Jon45 took over the Slavie from him) because "it did not offer enough opportunity to an ambitious man." 39 THE CECHS IN AMERICA came to Racine in 1861 the farmers, unable to make a living out of the few acres of soil which they had under cultivation, sought employment in the lum- ber industry, laboring in the saw mills in towns, cutting and rolling logs in camps. Often the only domestic animal owned by the farmer was a cow or a calf. Settlers bound for points west of the Mississippi River pre- ferred St. It had four times as many inhabitants as Chicago; in 1845 two German dailies were published there. Substantially the same story by Hugo Chotek, though concise, is reprinted in the Almanac Amerikdn, 1895, pp. 42 NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION arrived that year found temporary shelter in the home of a kind-hearted Bohemian Jew by the name of Levy. We settled in Brooklyn (suburb of Cleveland), where we found many of our country- men. Any kind of work was welcome in the start, as long as it assured existence to the immi- grant. The men earned their living by loading and un- loading lumber on the river front. The Rey- mershoffers passed through Catspring in 1855. Miller: (e) "Bohemians in Texas," The Bohemian Review, May, 1917. The Slavie of May 3, 1872, thinks that if to this num- ber were added those who, through ignorance, had been tabulated as Austrians, we should get a total of 42,000 born in Bohemia. Louis, 2652; New York, 1487; Milwaukee, 1435; Detroit, 537 ; Allegheny , 324; Pittsburgh, 49. Louis, Edwardsville, Granite City, Lockport, Lyons, Madison, Oak Park, Pullman, Pullman Junction, Streator, Wilmington. A girl who has graduated from a pub- lic school will not think of going to the tobacco factory, there to work side by side with Italian, Russian, and Greek girls freshly landed.Idealism is the most precious offering of the Cech immigrant to America. The aristocracy owning estates in Bohemia was, up to the time of the war, almost without exception Austrian in sentiment, ultramontane in politics, feudal in traditions. Good land could be bought at

Driven from their native land in the first half of the seventeenth century, Cech Protestant exiles are known to have settled in New Amsterdam, the present New York, and among the English in Virginia. The Missouri Republican of July 20, 1849, advertises the trip from St. It was claimed that immi- grants were treated brutally by agents and run- ners, particularly those who were unable to speak English. Borecky^ mentions by name about ten families who lived there in the mid-fifties. 5-40, in The Directory of Bo- hemian Merchants, Tradesmen and Societies. — Frank 44 o S X g o H U u i S NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION Minnesota boasted, in 1850, of 6077 white in- habitants. 29-68, in Directory and Almanac of the tech Population of Chicago. John Rynda: Guide to the Cech Catholic Congregations in the Archdiocese of St. Each family provided itself for the long trek with an ox-team and a prairie schooner, in which were piled featherbeds, kitchen utensils, clothing, provisions. Schlesinger had been a deputy to the Bohemian Diet. Both, when danger threatened, found succor under Herman's hospitable roof. Of the 2266 Bohemian male immigrants reported in this occu- pation, 1738, or more than three fourths, were in the State of New York, constituting more than one fourth (26.1 per cent) of the total number of Bo- hemian immigrant breadwinners in that State. In the sixties a few of the Sedlec cigarmakers emigrated to New York."Our nation," comments Charles Veleminsky, a ix INTRODUCTORY pedagogue who traveled in the United States, "has ever been idealistic, sacrificing all for its ideals. The native Cech nobility practically disappeared in the seventeenth century. Taxes were low; one could become a citizen within one year. 37 THE CECHS IN AMERICA office or to constitute a voter; all that is required is for the man to be 21 years old and to have lived in the state one year." ^ Wisconsin, for a long time, stood at the front of Cech effort in the United States. (e) "Bohemian Farmers in Wisconsin," Charities, New York, December 3, 1904. A lifelong friend of Jon65 and his schoolmate from Prague, Ma§ek, gave up journalism (Jon45 took over the Slavie from him) because "it did not offer enough opportunity to an ambitious man." 39 THE CECHS IN AMERICA came to Racine in 1861 the farmers, unable to make a living out of the few acres of soil which they had under cultivation, sought employment in the lum- ber industry, laboring in the saw mills in towns, cutting and rolling logs in camps. Often the only domestic animal owned by the farmer was a cow or a calf. Settlers bound for points west of the Mississippi River pre- ferred St. It had four times as many inhabitants as Chicago; in 1845 two German dailies were published there. Substantially the same story by Hugo Chotek, though concise, is reprinted in the Almanac Amerikdn, 1895, pp. 42 NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION arrived that year found temporary shelter in the home of a kind-hearted Bohemian Jew by the name of Levy. We settled in Brooklyn (suburb of Cleveland), where we found many of our country- men. Any kind of work was welcome in the start, as long as it assured existence to the immi- grant. The men earned their living by loading and un- loading lumber on the river front. The Rey- mershoffers passed through Catspring in 1855. Miller: (e) "Bohemians in Texas," The Bohemian Review, May, 1917. The Slavie of May 3, 1872, thinks that if to this num- ber were added those who, through ignorance, had been tabulated as Austrians, we should get a total of 42,000 born in Bohemia. Louis, 2652; New York, 1487; Milwaukee, 1435; Detroit, 537 ; Allegheny , 324; Pittsburgh, 49. Louis, Edwardsville, Granite City, Lockport, Lyons, Madison, Oak Park, Pullman, Pullman Junction, Streator, Wilmington. A girl who has graduated from a pub- lic school will not think of going to the tobacco factory, there to work side by side with Italian, Russian, and Greek girls freshly landed.Idealism is the most precious offering of the Cech immigrant to America. The aristocracy owning estates in Bohemia was, up to the time of the war, almost without exception Austrian in sentiment, ultramontane in politics, feudal in traditions. Good land could be bought at $1.25 an acre and the ground of poorer quality for less price than that. The weekly Slavie made familiar in every household the names of Milwaukee, Racine, Caledonia, Manitowoc, and Kewaunee. .** " In no other state of northern America are so many Cechs settled as in Wisconsin. ." "Many large Cech settlements may be found especially in the counties of Manitowoc, Kewaunee, Oconto, La Crosse, Adams, and Marathon."^ Vojta Masek (Mashek, 1 839-1903), a well-to-do merchant, tells in his reminiscences * that when he 1 F. — Anton Nov Ak: "Brief Account of the Bohemian Community in Milwaukee, in Memorial published on the occasion of the fourteenth convention of the C. All around the country was thickly wooded; beautiful maples, cherry trees and birches were cut and stumps burned to clear the land for cultivation. When in 1853 Chicago was connected with the east by rail and travelers found it more convenient and cheaper to reach the northwest by way of New York and Chicago rather than enter it via New Orleans and the Missis- sippi River, the claim of St. The fact should be noted that the Israelites in many instances preceded others from Bohemia. A private census taken of the Cleveland com- munity in 1869 2 lists 696 families, numbering a total of 3252 persons. The occupations of the men, the census gives as follows: 346 laborers, 76 masons, ^2 joiners, 56 tailors, 44 shoemakers, 39 coopers, 25 lock- smiths and machinists, 13 musicians, 11 smelters, More trustworthy data on the Cleveland community than Chotek's story are contained in the narratives of Francis S;^kora (arrived in 1853), Joseph Kri2 (1853), Martin Krej Ci (1854), Francis Sprost^ (1866), Francis Payer (1868), Joseph V. — Magdalena Ku2era: (e) "The Slavic Races in Cleveland," Charities, January, 1905. The women and children did the customary chores around the house. 49 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Drifting to Galveston, they became prominent in business and politics there. 477)." The newcomers spread over the counties of Osborne, Mitchell, Lincoln, Russell, Ellsworth, Barton. * Annual Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor, pp. 63 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Communities having more than ioo People of Cech Stock * Alabama: Silverhill. * The list of communities is based on the United States official census and on private estimates, furnished by persons who, by reason of their social or business standing or length of residence, are qualified to speak with authority for their respective States. The de- partment store, the office, win them because they offer greater opportunities than work in cigar shops." Fifty years of cigarmaking are back of the New York community, yet how many manufacturers of Cech nationality are there?In compiling this work I have made generous use of the memoirs of pioneers in the Almanac Ameri- kdn. The face bears the marks of his physical sufferings. Cleveland in the same way benefited by the opening of the Erie Canal, as did Detroit, the oldest of the Western cities. Before an all-rail connection had been es- tablished between New York and Chicago, Buffalo was a kind of Mecca, where immigrants, journeying westward, assembled. Nebraska leads with one fifth of all Bohemian farmers of the first generation, Texas follows with one sixth.Useful data are stored in the Pamdtniky (Me- morials) which various lodges publish from time to time to commemorate some noted event in their existence. The First Number of the Slowan Amerik^nsky 164 Pioneer Journalists: J. Erben, Frank Kori- zek, Joseph Pastor, Frank Mr42ek 166 Charles Jon4§ at Thirty 168 From a photograph taken in Prague, where he had gone to report for the Slavie on the Franco-Prussian War. Steamboats plied regularly between Milwaukee and Buffalo in the season of lake navigation. The city presented a sight not to be seen elsewhere on this continent. ^ All in all few rural colonies were visited (by the Immigration Commission) where members ap- peared more intelligent or more prosperous than some of the Bohemian communities in Texas. 69 THE CECHS IN AMERICA farmers of any race of the same generation farming under similar conditions.The Cech im- migration was fully thirty years old when the Slo- vaks began coming in. The Slovaks, as is shown by statistics, are massed in Pennsylvania, where the Cech population is small by comparison. Through Intermarriage into the Melting- Pot 96 VIII. Rationalism: A Transition from the Old to the New 119 XII. In the aggregate, it had the largest propor- tion of foreign citizens. "Reminiscences of John Koula," The Almanac Amerikdn, 1903. Louis might have been the birth- place of the Cech press in America. Louis attracted European settlers because it was the terminus of boats sailing up the Mississippi from New Orleans. Kaiser, old man Kocian, Bldha, Zeman, Hladik, Stein, Bauer, Ptdcek, Marek, etc." ^ Land prices in Cleveland, according to Novdk, who came in 1853, were ridiculously low. The Chicago pioneers squatted on the outskirts of the city, on land that is now a part of Lincoln Park. Sokol in Chicago," the Kvity Americke, March i6, 1887. An admirer of Havlicek, he did his bit in preparing the ground for Cech journal- ism in the United States. Louis Ndrodni Noviny, an outspoken Unionist paper, Lesikar was threatened with death by Con- federate neighbors unless he gave up the agency of this mischief-making publication. J 1,150 582 568 Oakland, Cal 229 99 130 Omaha, Neb 5.414 2,622 2,792 Paterson, N. The tendency among immigrants is to overestimate their number, so that if offi- cial figures are inaccurate, private estimates are in most instances worthless. A New Yorker, well qualified to speak on the subject by reason of his long residence and his close intimacy with the home life of his nationals adduces these reasons why the second generation has given up cigarmaking and is going into other employ- ments: "The young folks will not learn it and follow it as a trade.

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Driven from their native land in the first half of the seventeenth century, Cech Protestant exiles are known to have settled in New Amsterdam, the present New York, and among the English in Virginia. The Missouri Republican of July 20, 1849, advertises the trip from St. It was claimed that immi- grants were treated brutally by agents and run- ners, particularly those who were unable to speak English. Borecky^ mentions by name about ten families who lived there in the mid-fifties. 5-40, in The Directory of Bo- hemian Merchants, Tradesmen and Societies. — Frank 44 o S X g o H U u i S NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION Minnesota boasted, in 1850, of 6077 white in- habitants. 29-68, in Directory and Almanac of the tech Population of Chicago. John Rynda: Guide to the Cech Catholic Congregations in the Archdiocese of St. Each family provided itself for the long trek with an ox-team and a prairie schooner, in which were piled featherbeds, kitchen utensils, clothing, provisions. Schlesinger had been a deputy to the Bohemian Diet. Both, when danger threatened, found succor under Herman's hospitable roof. Of the 2266 Bohemian male immigrants reported in this occu- pation, 1738, or more than three fourths, were in the State of New York, constituting more than one fourth (26.1 per cent) of the total number of Bo- hemian immigrant breadwinners in that State. In the sixties a few of the Sedlec cigarmakers emigrated to New York.

"Our nation," comments Charles Veleminsky, a ix INTRODUCTORY pedagogue who traveled in the United States, "has ever been idealistic, sacrificing all for its ideals. The native Cech nobility practically disappeared in the seventeenth century. Taxes were low; one could become a citizen within one year. 37 THE CECHS IN AMERICA office or to constitute a voter; all that is required is for the man to be 21 years old and to have lived in the state one year." ^ Wisconsin, for a long time, stood at the front of Cech effort in the United States. (e) "Bohemian Farmers in Wisconsin," Charities, New York, December 3, 1904. A lifelong friend of Jon65 and his schoolmate from Prague, Ma§ek, gave up journalism (Jon45 took over the Slavie from him) because "it did not offer enough opportunity to an ambitious man." 39 THE CECHS IN AMERICA came to Racine in 1861 the farmers, unable to make a living out of the few acres of soil which they had under cultivation, sought employment in the lum- ber industry, laboring in the saw mills in towns, cutting and rolling logs in camps. Often the only domestic animal owned by the farmer was a cow or a calf. Settlers bound for points west of the Mississippi River pre- ferred St. It had four times as many inhabitants as Chicago; in 1845 two German dailies were published there. Substantially the same story by Hugo Chotek, though concise, is reprinted in the Almanac Amerikdn, 1895, pp. 42 NINETEENTH-CENTURY IMMIGRATION arrived that year found temporary shelter in the home of a kind-hearted Bohemian Jew by the name of Levy. We settled in Brooklyn (suburb of Cleveland), where we found many of our country- men. Any kind of work was welcome in the start, as long as it assured existence to the immi- grant. The men earned their living by loading and un- loading lumber on the river front. The Rey- mershoffers passed through Catspring in 1855. Miller: (e) "Bohemians in Texas," The Bohemian Review, May, 1917. The Slavie of May 3, 1872, thinks that if to this num- ber were added those who, through ignorance, had been tabulated as Austrians, we should get a total of 42,000 born in Bohemia. Louis, 2652; New York, 1487; Milwaukee, 1435; Detroit, 537 ; Allegheny , 324; Pittsburgh, 49. Louis, Edwardsville, Granite City, Lockport, Lyons, Madison, Oak Park, Pullman, Pullman Junction, Streator, Wilmington. A girl who has graduated from a pub- lic school will not think of going to the tobacco factory, there to work side by side with Italian, Russian, and Greek girls freshly landed.

Idealism is the most precious offering of the Cech immigrant to America. The aristocracy owning estates in Bohemia was, up to the time of the war, almost without exception Austrian in sentiment, ultramontane in politics, feudal in traditions. Good land could be bought at $1.25 an acre and the ground of poorer quality for less price than that. The weekly Slavie made familiar in every household the names of Milwaukee, Racine, Caledonia, Manitowoc, and Kewaunee. .** " In no other state of northern America are so many Cechs settled as in Wisconsin. ." "Many large Cech settlements may be found especially in the counties of Manitowoc, Kewaunee, Oconto, La Crosse, Adams, and Marathon."^ Vojta Masek (Mashek, 1 839-1903), a well-to-do merchant, tells in his reminiscences * that when he 1 F. — Anton Nov Ak: "Brief Account of the Bohemian Community in Milwaukee, in Memorial published on the occasion of the fourteenth convention of the C. All around the country was thickly wooded; beautiful maples, cherry trees and birches were cut and stumps burned to clear the land for cultivation. When in 1853 Chicago was connected with the east by rail and travelers found it more convenient and cheaper to reach the northwest by way of New York and Chicago rather than enter it via New Orleans and the Missis- sippi River, the claim of St. The fact should be noted that the Israelites in many instances preceded others from Bohemia. A private census taken of the Cleveland com- munity in 1869 2 lists 696 families, numbering a total of 3252 persons. The occupations of the men, the census gives as follows: 346 laborers, 76 masons, ^2 joiners, 56 tailors, 44 shoemakers, 39 coopers, 25 lock- smiths and machinists, 13 musicians, 11 smelters, More trustworthy data on the Cleveland community than Chotek's story are contained in the narratives of Francis S;^kora (arrived in 1853), Joseph Kri2 (1853), Martin Krej Ci (1854), Francis Sprost^ (1866), Francis Payer (1868), Joseph V. — Magdalena Ku2era: (e) "The Slavic Races in Cleveland," Charities, January, 1905. The women and children did the customary chores around the house. 49 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Drifting to Galveston, they became prominent in business and politics there. 477)." The newcomers spread over the counties of Osborne, Mitchell, Lincoln, Russell, Ellsworth, Barton. * Annual Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor, pp. 63 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Communities having more than ioo People of Cech Stock * Alabama: Silverhill. * The list of communities is based on the United States official census and on private estimates, furnished by persons who, by reason of their social or business standing or length of residence, are qualified to speak with authority for their respective States. The de- partment store, the office, win them because they offer greater opportunities than work in cigar shops." Fifty years of cigarmaking are back of the New York community, yet how many manufacturers of Cech nationality are there?

In compiling this work I have made generous use of the memoirs of pioneers in the Almanac Ameri- kdn. The face bears the marks of his physical sufferings. Cleveland in the same way benefited by the opening of the Erie Canal, as did Detroit, the oldest of the Western cities. Before an all-rail connection had been es- tablished between New York and Chicago, Buffalo was a kind of Mecca, where immigrants, journeying westward, assembled. Nebraska leads with one fifth of all Bohemian farmers of the first generation, Texas follows with one sixth.

Useful data are stored in the Pamdtniky (Me- morials) which various lodges publish from time to time to commemorate some noted event in their existence. The First Number of the Slowan Amerik^nsky 164 Pioneer Journalists: J. Erben, Frank Kori- zek, Joseph Pastor, Frank Mr42ek 166 Charles Jon4§ at Thirty 168 From a photograph taken in Prague, where he had gone to report for the Slavie on the Franco-Prussian War. Steamboats plied regularly between Milwaukee and Buffalo in the season of lake navigation. The city presented a sight not to be seen elsewhere on this continent. ^ All in all few rural colonies were visited (by the Immigration Commission) where members ap- peared more intelligent or more prosperous than some of the Bohemian communities in Texas. 69 THE CECHS IN AMERICA farmers of any race of the same generation farming under similar conditions.

The Cech im- migration was fully thirty years old when the Slo- vaks began coming in. The Slovaks, as is shown by statistics, are massed in Pennsylvania, where the Cech population is small by comparison. Through Intermarriage into the Melting- Pot 96 VIII. Rationalism: A Transition from the Old to the New 119 XII. In the aggregate, it had the largest propor- tion of foreign citizens. "Reminiscences of John Koula," The Almanac Amerikdn, 1903. Louis might have been the birth- place of the Cech press in America. Louis attracted European settlers because it was the terminus of boats sailing up the Mississippi from New Orleans. Kaiser, old man Kocian, Bldha, Zeman, Hladik, Stein, Bauer, Ptdcek, Marek, etc." ^ Land prices in Cleveland, according to Novdk, who came in 1853, were ridiculously low. The Chicago pioneers squatted on the outskirts of the city, on land that is now a part of Lincoln Park. Sokol in Chicago," the Kvity Americke, March i6, 1887. An admirer of Havlicek, he did his bit in preparing the ground for Cech journal- ism in the United States. Louis Ndrodni Noviny, an outspoken Unionist paper, Lesikar was threatened with death by Con- federate neighbors unless he gave up the agency of this mischief-making publication. J 1,150 582 568 Oakland, Cal 229 99 130 Omaha, Neb 5.414 2,622 2,792 Paterson, N. The tendency among immigrants is to overestimate their number, so that if offi- cial figures are inaccurate, private estimates are in most instances worthless. A New Yorker, well qualified to speak on the subject by reason of his long residence and his close intimacy with the home life of his nationals adduces these reasons why the second generation has given up cigarmaking and is going into other employ- ments: "The young folks will not learn it and follow it as a trade.

.25 an acre and the ground of poorer quality for less price than that. The weekly Slavie made familiar in every household the names of Milwaukee, Racine, Caledonia, Manitowoc, and Kewaunee. .** " In no other state of northern America are so many Cechs settled as in Wisconsin. ." "Many large Cech settlements may be found especially in the counties of Manitowoc, Kewaunee, Oconto, La Crosse, Adams, and Marathon."^ Vojta Masek (Mashek, 1 839-1903), a well-to-do merchant, tells in his reminiscences * that when he 1 F. — Anton Nov Ak: "Brief Account of the Bohemian Community in Milwaukee, in Memorial published on the occasion of the fourteenth convention of the C. All around the country was thickly wooded; beautiful maples, cherry trees and birches were cut and stumps burned to clear the land for cultivation. When in 1853 Chicago was connected with the east by rail and travelers found it more convenient and cheaper to reach the northwest by way of New York and Chicago rather than enter it via New Orleans and the Missis- sippi River, the claim of St. The fact should be noted that the Israelites in many instances preceded others from Bohemia. A private census taken of the Cleveland com- munity in 1869 2 lists 696 families, numbering a total of 3252 persons. The occupations of the men, the census gives as follows: 346 laborers, 76 masons, ^2 joiners, 56 tailors, 44 shoemakers, 39 coopers, 25 lock- smiths and machinists, 13 musicians, 11 smelters, More trustworthy data on the Cleveland community than Chotek's story are contained in the narratives of Francis S;^kora (arrived in 1853), Joseph Kri2 (1853), Martin Krej Ci (1854), Francis Sprost^ (1866), Francis Payer (1868), Joseph V. — Magdalena Ku2era: (e) "The Slavic Races in Cleveland," Charities, January, 1905. The women and children did the customary chores around the house. 49 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Drifting to Galveston, they became prominent in business and politics there. 477)." The newcomers spread over the counties of Osborne, Mitchell, Lincoln, Russell, Ellsworth, Barton. * Annual Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor, pp. 63 THE CECHS IN AMERICA Communities having more than ioo People of Cech Stock * Alabama: Silverhill. * The list of communities is based on the United States official census and on private estimates, furnished by persons who, by reason of their social or business standing or length of residence, are qualified to speak with authority for their respective States. The de- partment store, the office, win them because they offer greater opportunities than work in cigar shops." Fifty years of cigarmaking are back of the New York community, yet how many manufacturers of Cech nationality are there?In compiling this work I have made generous use of the memoirs of pioneers in the Almanac Ameri- kdn. The face bears the marks of his physical sufferings. Cleveland in the same way benefited by the opening of the Erie Canal, as did Detroit, the oldest of the Western cities. Before an all-rail connection had been es- tablished between New York and Chicago, Buffalo was a kind of Mecca, where immigrants, journeying westward, assembled. Nebraska leads with one fifth of all Bohemian farmers of the first generation, Texas follows with one sixth.Useful data are stored in the Pamdtniky (Me- morials) which various lodges publish from time to time to commemorate some noted event in their existence. The First Number of the Slowan Amerik^nsky 164 Pioneer Journalists: J. Erben, Frank Kori- zek, Joseph Pastor, Frank Mr42ek 166 Charles Jon4§ at Thirty 168 From a photograph taken in Prague, where he had gone to report for the Slavie on the Franco-Prussian War. Steamboats plied regularly between Milwaukee and Buffalo in the season of lake navigation. The city presented a sight not to be seen elsewhere on this continent. ^ All in all few rural colonies were visited (by the Immigration Commission) where members ap- peared more intelligent or more prosperous than some of the Bohemian communities in Texas. 69 THE CECHS IN AMERICA farmers of any race of the same generation farming under similar conditions.The Cech im- migration was fully thirty years old when the Slo- vaks began coming in. The Slovaks, as is shown by statistics, are massed in Pennsylvania, where the Cech population is small by comparison. Through Intermarriage into the Melting- Pot 96 VIII. Rationalism: A Transition from the Old to the New 119 XII. In the aggregate, it had the largest propor- tion of foreign citizens. "Reminiscences of John Koula," The Almanac Amerikdn, 1903. Louis might have been the birth- place of the Cech press in America. Louis attracted European settlers because it was the terminus of boats sailing up the Mississippi from New Orleans. Kaiser, old man Kocian, Bldha, Zeman, Hladik, Stein, Bauer, Ptdcek, Marek, etc." ^ Land prices in Cleveland, according to Novdk, who came in 1853, were ridiculously low. The Chicago pioneers squatted on the outskirts of the city, on land that is now a part of Lincoln Park. Sokol in Chicago," the Kvity Americke, March i6, 1887. An admirer of Havlicek, he did his bit in preparing the ground for Cech journal- ism in the United States. Louis Ndrodni Noviny, an outspoken Unionist paper, Lesikar was threatened with death by Con- federate neighbors unless he gave up the agency of this mischief-making publication. J 1,150 582 568 Oakland, Cal 229 99 130 Omaha, Neb 5.414 2,622 2,792 Paterson, N. The tendency among immigrants is to overestimate their number, so that if offi- cial figures are inaccurate, private estimates are in most instances worthless. A New Yorker, well qualified to speak on the subject by reason of his long residence and his close intimacy with the home life of his nationals adduces these reasons why the second generation has given up cigarmaking and is going into other employ- ments: "The young folks will not learn it and follow it as a trade.

Is the Cech an asset or a liability to his adopted country? On the other hand, ob- serve, for the sake of comparison, who had been the spokesmen of the Magyars in the Hungarian Parliament: Count Karolyi, Count Andrdssy, Count Batthydny, Count Tisza, Count Apponyi. Out of a population of 305*391 in 1850, there were 106,691, or more than one out of three, born abroad. "The state [Wiscon- sin] commended itself to settlers in other ways. * The Kvety Americke, January 5, 1887, biography and portrait; the Almanac Amerikdn, 1891; the Almanac Amerikdn, 1901, me- moirs and portrait. Passenger and freight carrying lines navigating the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, and Ohio Rivers made regular stops there. ' The Cech Community of Cleveland and the Social Life thereof. Published the year of the Ethnographic Exhibition in Prague, 1895. All the pio- neers could have become rich had they been fore- sighted. 43 THE CECHS IN AMERICA 12 butchers, 9 saddlers, 9 weavers, 8 stone cutters, 7 wheelwrights, 6 furriers, 6 tinsmiths, 5 bakers, 5 tanners, 5 dyers, 4 cutlers, 2 builders, 2 bookbind- ers, I printer, i watchmaker, i sanitary inspector, I policeman, i brewer, i lithographer, i priest, 22 saloonkeepers. There they lived until 1855 in shacks when the owner of the land drove the squatters ofl F. — The Directory of American (^echs, published to commemorate the Cech Slavic Ethnographic Ex- hibition in Prague, in 1895. One of the Siller family studied law and was either the first or one of the first Cechs in the United States to devote himself to the practice of that profession. J 87 43 44 Philadelphia, Pa 1,652 778 874 Pittsburgh, Pa 3.453 1,907 1,546 Portland, Oreg 354 178 . According to the census of 1870 there were little over 36,000 Cechs in the country. Connecticut: Bridgeport, East Haddam, New Haven, Chester, Stam- ford, West Willington. Illinois: Antioch, Algonquin, Belleville, Berwyn, Braidwood, Cary Station, Chicago, Cicero, Coal City, Co Uinsville, East St. While it may have been good enough for their parents, they reason, it is not good enough for them.

Literature relating to the settling of the Scandinavians, notably Swedes, is considera- ble. Prokop Church, Chicago 246 Monsignor Joseph Hessoun 248 Vincent Pisek, D. 250 Jan Hus Church and Neighborhood House, New York 252 Jan Hus Monument, Bohemia, Long Island 258 Bethlehem Chapel, Loomis Street, Chicago 258 Birthplace of the C. Die Constitutionelle Allgemeine Zeitung von Bohmen (Sep- tember 22, 1848) contains the advertisement of the firm of Knorr & Janssen, of Hamburg. Fever is prevalent among the inhabitants but it is not fatal. Fort Worth, Frelsburg, Frenstat, Frydek, Gainesville, Gal- veston, Glenflora, Gonzales, Granger, Guadelupe, Gus, Guy, Hackberry, Hallettsville, Harrold, Haskell, Henkhaus, Hillje, Hobson, Holik, Holland, Holliday, Holman, Houston, Houston Heights, Hubbard, Hungerford, Industry, Inez, Jarrell, Karnes City, Kaufman, Kendleton, Koerth, La Grange, Laneport, Louise, Lovelady, Lyra, Marak, Megargel, Merle, Miles, Moravia, Moul- ton, Mt.

The achievements of the Irish, the English, and the Dutch have been recorded in detail by numer- ous writers. Vopi Ska of Chicago, United States Minister to Rumania 236 xviii ILLUSTRATIONS St. Clothing, food and domestic labor are very high; shirts sell at $io each, beef from $i to a pound, laundering a dozen shirts costs . Calm, Nada, Needville, Nelsonville, Ocker, Oldenburg, Olmus, Penelope, Pierce, Pisek, Placedo, Plum, Port Lavaca, Poch, Praha, Primm, Rabb, Rices Crossing, Robstown, Rockdale, Rogers, Rosebud, Rosenberg, Rosprimm, Rowena, Roznov, Runge, St.

Most of the men and women who have taken a leading part in the affairs of American Cechs I have known personally, many of them intimately. I exchanged letters with Joseph Pastor and corre- sponded with the widow of Frank Mracek, latterly a resident of Odessa, Russia, and with the widow of Vojta Naprstek. Louis, Dubuque, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, Racine, Manitowoc, and Kewaunee. In 1900 the census reported 211,769 settlers of Swedish and 224,892 of Norwegian an- cestry. Pub Ushed to commemorate the tenth anniversary of a permanent Cech playhouse in Chicago. — The History of Ten Years Duration of the Society of Old Cech Settlers of Chicago. The arrivals of 1854 were John Bdrta Letovsky, Anton Sulek, F. Herman was one of the striking figures among the pathfinders. Occupations of the first and second generations of immigrants in the United States, Senate Doc. The system remembered in New York with horror as "housework" was abolished by act of the legislature in 1888.

My list of friends and acquaintances has included Charles Jonds, F. I never had the good fortune to meet Ladimir Kl Acel, but heard sufficient concern- ing that unhappy philosopher from my brother to enable me to form a fairly accurate picture of the purely human side of the man. Hall, Chicago 56 Cech-American Hall, Milwaukee 5^ 12 26 34 38 38 44 44 Herman, 48 XV ILLUSTRATIONS Plzensky Sokol Gymnastic Association Hall, Chicago 56 Map showing the Distribution of the Stock in the United States 60 Two Towns with Cech Names and Cech In- habitants: Pisek, North Dakota, and Proti- vin, Iowa 66 The First Lawyers: Joseph Sosel, Cedar Rap- ids, Iowa; J. Sykora, Cleveland; John Karel, Kewaunee, Wisconsin, former U. Always small, the settlements in New Orleans, Buffalo, and Dubuque soon disap- peared, owing partly to removal, partly to assimi- lation. Of the Germanic race the census enumerator found in the State that year 289,822 people. "The fine stretch of land comprising Le Sueur, Rice and Scott counties, peopled chiefly by our Cech countrymen and which we may truly call Little Bohemia was, fifty years ago, the stamping ground of droves of deer, roebuck and other beasts of the field." ^ B. Kubias, Joseph Various (Wallace), John Witousek, Joseph Woyti Sek, John Cemin, Joseph and F. Not without reason co-nationals looked up to him as a leader. Miniberger, editor of the Cecho- American, Baltimore. Theodore Roosevelt, by the way, was very active in the passage at Albany of this law.

I know it in its holiday attire and in its working clothes. Their decks were loaded with passengers, horses, horned cattle, Vehicles, and household belongings. Vosoba, Vaclav Jilek and Anton Simerda bought land in Jones County in 1855.^ Home-builders began arriving in Nebraska in noticeable numbers after 1863, following the pas- sage of the Homestead Law. John Herman who, like most Nebraskans, had first tried Wisconsin, is said to have brought with him more cash money to America than any other pioneer; according to John Rosicky, a Nebraska newspaper editor, some 80,000 florins. The corresponding percentage for the Russians are, respectively, 18 per cent and 5.5 per cent and for * Reports of the Immigration Commission, v. No other nationalities have as high percentages in this occupation.^ In general intelligence the tailors rank high; many of them have learned the trade in large European cities, Prague, Vienna, Paris.